Module 4. Design aspects of dairy plant
Lesson 16

16.1 Introduction

Planning is the way of proceeding or scheme of arrangement for executing any work or project. Planning a layout for a dairy calls for careful thinking. Designing a dairy plant layout is a joint venture of Architects, Dairy Managers, Dairy Engineers and Administrators, because it is an overall managerial function. The ideas of several technocrats are sought and future requirements are estimated as accurately as possible. The anticipated capacity in 10 years, products to be manufactured, types of packages, methods of distribution, material handling, loading out facilities and office space are the examples of items to be kept in view while planning layout. The plant layout engineering function is to achieve an efficient plant layout through the utilization of logical, well through procedure.

Top management policies affect the plant layout as policies determine the plant layout objectives and scope of plant activities. The layout engineer must have a clean and complete understanding of those top management policies, that have a bearing on plant layout objectives. A knowledge of managerial policy with respect to the future volume of production and the size of business firm is of particular importance to dairy plant layout engineer, because it will point to the need for providing for future expansion or contraction in the layout. Included in expansion programmes are management decision with respect to the addition of new or related lines of products. A plant layout should be so planned and arranged, that the needed capacity to produce new or related products can be added at low cost, with minimum of plant revision and interruption of production schedules.

A good layout must improve or facilitate production operations, minimize material handling maintain flexibility of the operation for alteration and expansion, minimize investment in equipment, make economical use of floor area, promote effective utilization of the labour force and provide for employee convenience and comfort.

Many companies engage an architect to draw up a plant of an attractive design and consult dairy equipment manufacturers for ideas regarding latest machinery. The common mistake lies in making too large or too small a plant. The size of dairy plant is a matter of consideration and prudence. It has often been found unwise and erroneous to construct a very large building in as much as it may not be paying especially in new business. Many concern have faced bankruptcy due to overhead cost on massive construction.

16.2 Principles of Dairy Layout

As far as possible dairy layout engineers should try to incorporate the following principles in layout, which, in turn, will help in having an economical and efficient dairy plant. It is often seen that the dairy designer or layout engineer is not in a happy position because he is always confronted with one or the other layout planning problem, which makes him unable to apply all the principles described hereunder:

1. The milk route should be as short as possible. This will minimize the cost of pipe length and save time in cleaning.

2. Reception and dispatch platforms must be arranged in relation to plant in such a way that congestion of transport vehicles is avoided.

3. A small dairy handling milk upto 20,000 litres/day may have reception and dispatch at one dock as there will not be much rush of vehicles. In large dairies, this separation is essential. Generally milk reception and dispatch of washed cans is one side (because washed cans are reloaded on the same vehicle and returned to milk producers) and dirty bottle reception is on the other side.

4. Where space is available, single storey building is most suited. The plan may have a rectangular shape with roads on all sides.

5. The floor level of milk reception and dispatch docks and of all rooms concerned with milk cans and bottles should be at the same height above the ground level suited to vehicles. However, the weigh tank and raw milk pump should be at a lower level in order to have a convenient tipping height. A well or pit must be constructed for the weigh tank and raw milk pump.

6. The raw milk storage tank and pasteurized milk balance tank may be mounted on a staging in order to save floor space and to provide a gravity head to fillers.

7. If it is desired to have a refrigeration compressor room and boiler house in the same building, the floor level of these rooms should be at part with ground level. This gives extra height to boiler and affords a study foundation to compressor.

8. Laboratory should have easy approach to processing room, reception room and filling room.

9. Separate apartments should be assigned for offices.

10. Boiler should be located near the place where steam is required.

11. Refrigeration machinery room should be near the process room and cold store.

12. Security and watch and ward offices should be located near gate.

16.3 Operational Layouts

Operational layouts describe operations which take place in processing or manufacture of any item. All operations involved are represented diagrammatically in chronological way, i.e., sequence-wise-what comes next on the paper like any flow diagram which can be easily understood by a layman. There is no restriction in showing pictorial views or three dimensional layouts. For instance, an operational layout of a butter making factory will differ from that of ice cream making plant as two have different operations to achieve end product.

These layouts are usually drawn to impress upon management board which may comprise of professional and non-professional members for quick understanding of the proposed project.

16.4 Typical Layouts for Different Types of Product Sections of Dairy Plant

Typical layouts are prepared for different types of product manufacturing in the dairy plant. The layout should be functional to facilitate each unit operation involved in product manufacturing.Fig. 16.1, Fig. 16.2, Fig. 16.3, Fig. 16.4, Fig. 16.5, Fig. 16.6, Fig. 16.7, Fig. 16.8, Fig. 16.9, Fig. 16.10, Fig. 16.11, Fig. 16.12, and Fig. 16.13 shows typical layout of different product manufacturing sections, integrated product plant and service block.

Last modified: Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 10:15 AM