Module 4. Design aspects of dairy plant

Lesson 17


17.1 Introduction

Single or multi level design of dairy plant is decided based on its capacity, type of products manufactured and provision for future expansion. The single story concept is used where plenty of land is available at cheaper rate, but if land is costly then multi level concept is used. In multi level dairy plant concept of super structure on beams and columns is used to have better strength and to facilitate future expansion. Multi level concept is also used for drying plants. In multi level dairy plants heavy machineries are generally installed at ground level and if required to be installed at other place then it should be provided by pillars up to ground level to transfer vibrations and impact load likely to come on it.

17.2 Selection of Single or Multi Level Building

The number of floors to be provided in the building obviously affects the planning of various sections and the area required. In considering this, it should be remembered as a general principle that it is preferable to keep heavy goods at one level and that liquids are easily pumped to high level and can flow back by gravity.

If the depth of the external drainage system, the nature of the site and the condition of the ground are suitable, a basement for the supply and distribution of services should be considered. Such an arrangement allows short, direct connections to the process equipment on the ground floor and eliminates the necessity for housing service pipes in the process room.

For small plants specializing in only one product, and where floor space required is relatively small, it is almost always cheaper to build in one level, this may also be the case for large single product plant. In other cases provided conditions permit, basement to house services will generally be an advantage.

The number of floors above ground which the plant should have depends to some extent on the scale and nature of the process, but mainly on the number of product ot be manufactured. However, small plants are generally of single storey even if several products are made. Only the storage tanks are at first floor level.

For medium size plant dealing with one or two products such as bottled milk and butter, it is more practicable to have the main sections on the same level. Only the tank room need to be placed on an upper floor, partly to reduce length of the piping and also to avoid pumping treated with to the bottled machines. If the plant specializes in more than two products than the floor space required would be so large that it should be more economical to construct a two storey building. Some types of equipment require two storey operation, for example continuous sterilizers and spray driers.

Which sections are to be located on the various floors is a matter of practical business administration and the deciding factors include the extent of production and the transport of goods. It is assumed that the plant has a service basement which can also provide storage for packing materials and other commodities, as well as housing operational equipment.

Last modified: Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 10:15 AM