Module 1. Introduction

Lesson 3


3.1 Introduction

A low per capita availability of milk, higher proportion of buffalo milk, poor quality of raw milk, lack of organized manufacture of products, lack of adequate technology, high cost of new technologies, lack of in-house R & D, lack of proper infrastructure, lack of indigenous equipments and plants etc. have been the problems mainly associated with the production and utilization of dairy by-products in India. It is only after economic liberalization and de-licensing of the dairy industry in 1993, that dairy by-products, which were mostly neglected by the dairy plants earlier started receiving due attention. A number of by-products based dairies with large automatic and continuous manufacturing plants have been set up. India’s import and export of dairy by-products during 2008-2010 is shown in Fig.3.1.

3.2 Skim Milk and Its By-Products

In India, skim milk is mostly utilized either for standardization purposes or preserved in spray dried form. Only a very small quantity of skim milk, mostly of substandard quality, has to be used as by-product. A small percentage of this is disposed off in drain particularly during flush season.

3.2.1 Casein and caseinates

Production of edible casein is an economically feasible proposition, only when the whey thereby produced is efficiently and economically utilized. This has been one of the main reasons why edible casein was not produced seriously in India before 1995. Most of the requirement of this by-product, even for industrial uses, was met through import. During the last 15 years, there has been an entry of a few large automatic and continuous manufacturing plants in India for the manufacture of edible casein, lactose and whey protein concentrates. Presently, most of the casein produced is being exported, but eventually with the assured Indian market, the product would be diverted for internal consumption also. Manufacture of caseinates is yet to pick up on commercial scale in India.

3.2.2 Co-precipitates

Manufacture of co-precipitates was not taken up in India at any time.

3.2.3 Milk protein hydrolysates

Milk protein hydrolysates are prepared from casein and whey protein. In India, there lies a great scope for making improvement in the quality of the protein hydrolysates being prepared.


Fig. 3.1 Data on India’s import and export of dairy by-products during 2008-2010

3.3 Whey and Its By-products

In India, there has been a tremendous increase in the production of cheese and coagulated milk products resulting in a proportionate increase in whey. Many large scale by-product manufacturing plants are processing whey to prepare WPC, lactose and demineralised whey powder in India. In India, the major source of whey ( above 70%) is from the production of chhana and paneer, the production of which is mostly scattered over numerous small holdings. In the absence of systematic surveys/statistics, the predicted value for total whey production in India is estimated at 5 million tonnes per annum.

3.3.1 Concentrated and dried whey

Condensing and drying of whey has still not been adopted by any dairy plant in India.

3.3.2 Whey drinks

A number of refreshing whey drinks and beverages have been developed in India that include whevit, acidowhey, whey-based fruit beverages, whey-based soups, whey-based lassi and whey-based sports beverage. These beverages are preferably prepared from paneer/chhana whey, which is acidic and has low protein content (0.4%). In India, some organized manufacturers have initiated production of whey based beverages and soups and these products are fast becoming popular.

3.3.3 Demineralisation

In India, whey demineralisation is done in few plants. About 4 dairy plants have installed electrodialysis process and one plant has installed ion exchange process.

3.3.4 Ultrafiltration processing

UF is one of the most potential technologies for processing of whey to recover whey proteins in India. In India, all the lactose, the total production capacity being about 15,000 tonnes per annum, is produced from UF permeate.

3.4 Buttermilk

Buttermilk is the by-product obtained during the manufacture of butter. The exact amount of buttermilk production in India is not estimated. However, based on conversion of 6.5% of total milk production into creamery butter, it can be estimated that over 0.4 million tonnes of buttermilk is produced in organized sector annually as a by-product. In addition, a substantial amount of lassi (sour buttermilk) is also produced during the manufacture of makkhan directly from fermented milk (curd). Total annual production of buttermilk in India is estimated at 35 million tonnes. Sweet cream buttermilk resembles skim milk in gross chemical composition and is usually admixed with bulk of skim milk for further spray drying or even product manufacture in dairy plants. Desi buttermilk, on the other hand, has long been an important domestic beverage in India. It has high nutritive and therapeutic value. It also finds its way in the preparation of a host of items such as kadhi, dhokla and idli. Also a number of state dairy federations and private plants sell salted and spiced buttermilk in 200 ml pouches. Surat-based Sumul does business out of selling buttermilk (chhach) in and around the city."Sumul chhach" in 500ml packs reaches practically very nook and corner of Surat, covering over 850 retail outlets. In the summer, an average sale of chhach is around 45,000 litres a day.

3.5 Ghee-Residue

Mostly dairy plants in India have not been utilising Ghee-residue profitably except for fat extraction; most of the Ghee-residue goes to waste. Only a few dairy plants are utilising Ghee-residue (GR) in chocolate sweet manufacture. According to one estimate, about 33 percent of total milk produced in the country is diverted for ghee making (Dairy India, 2007). Taking an average yield of GR as one-tenth the quantity of ghee produced, at present level of ghee production (30.4 million tonnes), the GR produced works out to more than 3 million tonnes per annum.

Selected references

Goel, B.K. and Chouhdary, V.K. 1996. Techno-economic aspects of production of salted spiced buttermilk: A promising profit making by-product utilisation. Indian Dairyman, 48 (5): 29-31.
Prasad, V. 2007. Whey processing. In: Dairy India-sixth edition, ed. P.R. Gupta and Sharad Gupta, Dairy India Yearbook: 244.

Last modified: Wednesday, 3 October 2012, 6:08 AM