Module 20. Management of condensed and dried milk industry

Lesson 48


48.1 Introduction

The condensed and dried milk plants are no different than the other dairy operations. The general criteria followed throughout the industry can be of the following system.

48.2 Style of Management

1. Top Down Approach: All instructions from top

2. Bottom up approach: Rank has the responsibilities

48.3 Organizational Structure

What individual should do is shown in Fig. 48.1 of the Organizational structure

48.4 Important Areas for a Spray Drying Plant to Control

Following guidelines will be useful for the people engaged in the drying plant system and will prove beneficial to others for planning their work according to given and tested guidelines.

1. Quality of the spray dried product

(a) quality needed

(b) The value which the manufacturer likes to incorporate in view of the purchasing capacity of the consumers with best utilization of the inputs at competitive cost.

(c) The ratio of quality achievable per unit expenditure should be kept relatively constant as long term goal.

(d) Ensuring excellent sanitation and hygiene to keep bacterial load well under control

(e) Market feedback about quality control, analysis and efforts

2. Productivity

Productivity involves best possible utilization of resources like

(1) Money

(2) Materials

(3) Machines and

(4) Men

Allocation of resources is made to achieve the production of quality powder at competitive cost by cutting down unit cost and thus improving productivity.

3. Effort needed for utilization of resources

Planning – person involved and necessity

A detailed integrated plan of action

Rank should understand responsibility in view of corporate guidance

Planning - subject to change as per the availability of resources

Putting plans into action as it is a result of predetermined thought process of group of people

Follow up

4. Supervision

In view of the action plan, every supervisor should take care of

¨ Cleanliness, sanitation and hygiene

¨ Efficiency of machine and manpower

¨ Consistency in production

¨ Process parameters and checks

¨ Maintenance - with the help of engineers

¨ Raw material availability

¨ Control of wastage's

¨ Quality

¨ Promotion of harmonious labour management relations

5. Manpower effectiveness

Workmen should follow correct procedures.

Unless the workmen want to achieve error prevention as per the instruction of their supervisors or else no improvement will take place

Motivation through educational programs for improving their skill

Setting an environment in the plant by understanding human needs on the job

Workmen to be given responsibility and challenge

Identify average, good and excellent performers and train them properly

Pat people when they have done good.

Be an active listener

Handle carefully negative ones for achieving your goal

Above all, people of average intelligence and normal personality should be there

6. Introduction of error prevention programme

  • Don't tolerate problems as they will multiply
  • This involves researching, engineering, specifying and implementing procedures which when followed will assure low probability of error
  • How best errors can be reduced to zero level should be ultimate aim

7. Effective communication system:

• Most people are afraid of communication

• An open discussion about your drying plant covering all the problems and constraints should be discussed at appropriate times

• Discuss your problems frankly

8. Control of wastages

At the time of milk transfer, condensing, drying, packing, stacking and dispatching. Following are few Reasons for the waste

• Inadequate system of drying

• Insufficient skill

• Lack of interest among employees

• Failure to carry out instructions

• Indifference or laziness

• Insufficient staff

• Replacement of spare parts without inspection

• Short supply of utility services like steam, hot air or water

• Unavailability of spare parts

• Spillage

• Not getting the optimum parameters

• Allowing more product in packing lines to pack

• Frequent stoppage of p lant - causing rejections

• Not following the present plan for cleaning schedules and changeover

9. Analyze waste for collective action

• Area where waste is recurring

• Initiate collective action

• Develop systematic plan for control

• Trace critical control points

• If problems are many at various places, give priority to critical ones

• Follow up that your action plan is followed rigidly to control waste

10. Ideal system for controlling waste

· Delegate responsibility for carrying out the work.

· Ask for suggestions of everyone in the plant

· Develop records and analyze suggestion

· Devote time to be with the people to show your concern

· Recommend changes in job methods to avoid waste

· Prevent waste through advance planning of day-to-day work schedule and job assignments

· Develop people for predicting the problem in advance by analyzing the data bank

· Don’t forget to educate if they have not accorded proper attention

11. Develop records

• Record day-to-day problems, their cause and record remedial measures

• Record production data along with electricity, steam, water and manpower

• Record wastages

• Calculate consistency in your production to ascertain where you are

• Developing records will generate a repertoire of tricks among plant people to tackle problems

12. Preventive maintenance system

• It helps to analyze the cause of failures of certain items.

• It helps in finding out the duration or age of a component like bearings, seals and rings and help to take remedial measures

• A preventive maintenance plan need to be worked out for reducing wastages and making the system of drying more economic

13. Safety in powder plant

• This generate confidence among the employees that management is concerned about them

• Make sure that hydrant system has been provided in the drying cham¬ber to extinguish fire

• Make sure that enough vent/doors have been provided to avoid explosions

• Make sure that all motors, gears have been guarded properly to avoid accidents

• People to be trained for controlling fire and other untoward incidence

• Make sure that emergency kits and ambulance are handy

• Periodical examination of all such systems to see whether they are operative

14. A stepwise plan of action for economizing drying system

• Plan work schedule

• Prepare detailed production schedule, make flow chart giving the sequence of operation, give time for each operation

• Arrange materials required

• Allocate manpower and spell out who will do what

• Go on accounting hourly achievements

15. Review of production schedule

Take fair trial for cutting cost by way of

• Reducing wastage

• Rationalizing work force

• Reduce transportation time

• Reduce unnecessary movement of workmen

• Reduce workers movement to tool room for bringing engineering items

Keep necessary items near your drying plant

16. Other measures to reduce cost

Cut down office expenses; organize layout of your office that people can approach you without wasting time

• Make sure that your procedures are simple and avoid those which are not necessary

• Don’t add paper work too much

• Keep only essential staff for your office

• All out effort - not follow bureaucratic system - this is a costly way; follow American system and do your job yourself

• In the matter of productivity, merely hard work does not merit commendation; remember, what is important is that the work done should yield productive results

• Delegate responsibilities except accountability; everyone in the system should be accountable

See that time is also a valuable resource, it should be utilized most productively by all concerned
Last modified: Friday, 2 November 2012, 6:32 AM