Physical examination


  • The muscles, fat and bones of different animals have different characteristics. Hence, it is essential to know the physical character of different types of meats to detection of fraud.
    • Rigor Mortis: The onset time of rigor mortis varies in different species. So by looking at the rigor mortis we can identify the type of the meat.
    • Meat of dead animals: Animals which have died of natural causes show fullness of blood vessels and the meat is dark red due to lack of proper bleeding. Such carcasses undergo decomposition very quickly. So such meat should not be allowed for human consumption.


  • Meat is dark red in colour
  • Ammonical odour
  • Muscle fibres is firm and dense in consistency
  • Rich fat deposition in between groups of muscles
  • Fat is not intermixed with muscles
  • Fat is white in colour, hard and firm
  • Bone marrow is slightly red

Goat meat

  • Paler than mutton
  • Muscles contain very little fat
  • Goat meat odour resembles odour of buck


  • Whitish grey in colour and in advanced age it becomes grey-red in colour
  • Consistency is soft
  • Fat is intermixed with muscles
  • Fat is white and granulated
  • Bone marrow is pink-red in colour
  • Urine-like odour

Dog meat

  • Fat is slightly intermixed with muscles
  • Dark red in colour
  • Fat is white in colour


  • Saturated Red in colour with a brown tinge
  • Fat is intermixed with muscles
  • After chilling fat acquires a firm consistency

Milch cow

  • Lighter in colour
  • Coarse fibres
  • Fat is yellow and less firm

Old cattle

  • Yellow fat
  • Bone marrow is pure white to reddish yellow


  • Fine fibres
  • Fat is not inter mixed with muscles
  • Bone marrow is pink-red in colour

Horse meat

  • Meat is dark red in colour
  • When meat is exposed to air to becomes blackish in colour
  • Fat is golden to dark yellow in colour
  • Bone marrow is greasy

Poultry meat

  • Muscular tissues are firm with fine fibres
  • Fat is intermixed with muscles

Fish meat

  • Meat is white in colour
  • Entire muscular mass of each side comprises a single muscle plate
  • Fat is finely distributed in the muscles
  • Meat contains large quantity of water
  • Apart from the physical examination of meat, examination of bones is also helpful in determining adulteration.
Last modified: Tuesday, 5 June 2012, 12:40 PM