Cultivars in coconut

Cultivars in coconut

  • The major classification of coconut based on stature or height is as follows:
    1) Tall palms and
    2) Dwarf palms
  • These palms are differentiated as under;
    Sl No. Characters/Features Talls (C. nucifera var typica) Dwarfs(C. nucifera var Nana)
    1. Size /stature of the tree (Tree ht. M.) 15-18 m with 25 –30 fronds 5-7 m with 22 – 28 fronds
    2. Age at first bearing/Bearing tendency Late bearing (7-10 years) Early bearing (3-4 years)
    3. Stem girth (cm) More (66cm) 51 to 53 cm
    4. Leaf length x width (m) (Leaf size) Longer (3.8 x 2.7) 2.9 – 3.1 x1.5 –1.8
    5. Length of petiole(m) Longer (1.3) 0.9 to1.2
    6. Type of pollination Mostly cross Mostly self and hence true to type.
    7. Size of nut (girth in cm) Bigger (56) Smaller (34 -38)
    8. Copra content (g) High (170g) Lesser (92-99g)
    9. Oil per cent in copra Higher >70% Lesser (66-70%)
    10. Quality of copra, oil and fibre Superior Comparatively poor
    11. Trunk characters i.e., Bole/sweelling at base Has swelling at the base Thin, narrow, linear trunk from ground level
    12. Yield per palm Less (66) More(66-91)
    13. Life span 60-80 years 40-50 years
    14. Management requirement Average i.e., Are adopted to adverse soil and climatic conditions Better management as it is comparatively less tolerant to drought.
    15. Days for germination 95 days 49-61

Table: Features differentiating between Talls and Dwarfs in coconut

    Confined to Trichur District of Kerala. It has large sized nut. Average weight of copra : 285 g where as it is only 165 g in LO. Long pre bearing period of 10 years as against 6 to 8 years in WCT.
  • LAGUNA :
    Tall type grown in Phillippines
    commercial type grown in Phillippines.
    It is grown in Phillippines characterized by the jelly like endosperm inside cavity . Entire cavity of some nuts are filled with jelly like endosperm which is a delicacy in Phillippines. One or two nuts of this kind may be found in a bunch of 5 to 7 nuts while, remaining are ordinary coconuts (6 to 7 % of nuts).
    Tall variety of coconut having unbranched inflorescence or rarely with one or two spikelets. The inflorescence usually carries only female flowers with maleness least expressed.
Sl. No.
Parentage Nut yield/ palm/yr (No.) Copra content (g/nut) Important features
1. West Coast Tall (WCT) --- 80 176 Economic life of 75 years. It is a regular bearer producing about 12 inflorescences per year.
2. East Coast Tall (ECT) --- 73 125 Cultivar grown in east coast of India
3. Lakshadweep Ordinary (Chandra Kalpa) Indigenous to Laksadweep Island 100 160 Released in 1985 by CPCRI for large scale cultivation in Karnataka, Kerala and AP. Good for toddy tapping
4. Lakshadweep Micro (LM) --- 160 90 Small sized nuts,
5. Andaman Ordinary (VPM-3) --- 70-100 186 good toddy yielder.
4. Tiptur Tall --- 86 178 Popular tall cultivar of Karnataka resembling WCT in most of the morphological characters
7. Spicata --- 116 176 No spike in the inflorescence
8. Benaulim Tall (Pratap) --- 150 152 Popular cultivar in Goa, Konkan and Coastal Maharastra
9. Phillippines Ordinary ( Kerachandra) ---

For Coastal Maharastra, AP and West Bengal
    II Dwarf Varieties
  • These are shorter in stature and life span as compared to talls. They start flowering in 3-4 years, grow rapidly and bear heavily but have a tendency of irregular bearing . Size of copra and quality is inferior to talls.
  • Eg: Choughat Dwarf Orange (it is superior to dwarf green in yield and quality) , chowghat Dwarf green, Malayan Dwarf yellow, Malayan Dwarf Green, Malayan Dwarf Orange and Gangabondam (grown popularly in AP), Coconino ( grown in phillippines for good quality toddy production)
    Dwarfs are usually grown for
      1. tender nut production
      2. Hybrid production and
      3. for ornamental value
Sl. No. Cultivar/Hybrid Parentage Nut yield/ palm/yr (No.) Copra content (g/nut) Important features
B. Dwarfs
1. Chowghat Dwarf Orange (COD) --- 63 158 Also a ornamental palm
2. Chowghat Dwarf Green (CDG) --- 77 60 For tender nut and ornamental use
3. Malayan Dwarf Yellow )MDY) --- 66 140 Introduction from Malaysia
4. Ganga Bondam(GB) --- 68 150 Popular variety in AP
5. Gudanjali Dwarf --- --- --- Gujarat
Table : Dwarf type of coconuts
  • Other Dwarf types includes Mangipod ( Phillippines), Nuleka (Fiji), Rath Thembli (Known as king coconut in Sri Lanka).
  • Dwarfs adopted to Indian conditions are of two types
      1) Javanica : Bearing in 4 years- vigorous and are self or cross pollinated.
      2) Nana : Bearing in 3 years and self pollinating and are delicate.
Sl. No. Cultivar Released under the name State for which recommended
Laccadive Ordinary
A.P., TN, Karnataka, Maharastra, and Kerala
Banawali Green Round
Coastal Maharastra

Philippines Oridinary

Coastal Maharastra, Coastal AP and WB.
Andaman Ordinary


Andaman Ordinary
Table : Coconut varieties released through selection

Last modified: Wednesday, 16 November 2011, 10:01 AM