such as quinoa and amaranth, barley, buckwheat, chick pea and nuts flour are used since ancient times. The nutrient composition and the baking performance of the flours vary depending on the grain type.
Amaranth flour:Strong, sweet, spicy, nutty-flavored flour. Best used as an accent flour in waffles, pancakes, cookies or muffins.
Barley flour:Low in gluten and with a sweet nutty flavor. Mixed with wheat flour, it gives bread a cake like texture.
Buck wheat flour:The edible seed of a plant related to rhubarb family. It is not related to wheat or other grains. Because it does not contain low amount of gluten and cannot be used to make leavened products. It contains good proportion of essential amino acids and hence improves nutritional quality of protein. It is commonly combined with wheat flour for baking. It is suitable for people suffering from celiac disease.
Chickpea flour:When milled, it produces gluten free flour that can be mixed with wheat flour in cookies. It has high protein (25%) and can be incorporated up to 10 per cent to enhance protein content of baked products. Higher addition adversely affects the volume and sensory parameters.
Nut flours / grits such as hazelnut,almond and others add flavor and texture to baked foods when added in small proportions of 10 to 15 per cent. Nuts become rancid quickly due to high oil content hence, fresh nuts should be used. The products incorporated with nuts should be kept frozen in airtight containers.Chestnut flouris used primarily in Italian and Hungarian cake and pastry making.
Oats:Flaked, rolled or as meal, oats add fiber and texture to baking recipes.Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat. It contains soluble fiber, which helps to lower blood cholesterol levels when eaten as part of a low-cholesterol diet. Oat bran is added to muffins and breads. Oat flour has relatively high protein (17%), but does not form gluten. Oat flour can be substituted to an extent of 1/3 of wheat flour in bread.
Wheat germor bran, unprocessed bran:Though not a flour, wheat germ, either untoasted or toasted, can be incorporated in a recipe in small amounts (up to 10 per cent) to enhance nutritional value of baked products in terms of fiber and vitamin E. Higher proportions affect baking performance and sensory quality.
Whole grain meal/ flour: Whole grain flours contain the entire seed material that is edible in contrast to refined grains that do not contain coarse, fibrous part of the seed. In addition to fiber, whole-grain baked foods are better sources of B vitamins, vitamin E, and many minerals than are those made with white flour. Whole grains also provide folate and selenium. Whole wheat flour may be substituted up to 50 per cent of white flour in yeast and quick bread recipes, but the product will be denser. Bran particles cut through the gluten during mixing and kneading of bread dough, resulting in a smaller, heavier loaf.Research has proved that whole grains are healthy and reduce the risk of stroke, heart disease and cancer.
Triticale flour:is a hybrid of wheat and rye. It has average protein content higher than that of wheat flour. In yeast bread dough, triticale flour has better handling properties than rye flour because it will form gluten, but does not handle as well as wheat dough. For good quality dough, ferment yeast dough made with triticale flour for a shorter period than wheat flour dough.