Lesson 08 : Food Production
Steps in Food Production
- Production Requires Planning:: Production planning starts with the menu and the production forecast which is based on the numbers to be served. In such food service such as hospital, college food service, residence hall, the number is known and a pattern of meals by day and by meal usually develops, whereas in the case of cafeteria the number is variable from day to day.
Recipes should be adjusted to the predicted number of servings required. Most quantity recipes are calculated in modules of 25, 50 or 100.
Standardized recipes are essential to production of quality food.
- Production schedule: Careful planning & scheduling of food preparation assures the efficient use of employee time and a minimum of production problems.
Scheduling requires knowledge of the steps through which a product must go and the time required for each as well as the steps that can be completed early without affecting the quality of the food.
In scheduling the cooking of foods, allowance must be made for the time required for heat to penetrate the large masses of food. Planning ahead helps to distribute work load evenly and ensures employee satisfaction.
- Methods of production:
A variety of processes are involved in the production of food for service. The preparation may be as simple as washing and displaying the food such as fresh fruit or as complex as the preparation of a baked dessert. Cooking methods:
Production involves cooking, chilling and freezing processes or a combination of these.
Cooking is based on principles of physics & chemistry. The properties of many ingredients used in food production cause reactions of various types. Heat is the factor that causes many reactions to occur resulting in the final product. Heat is transferred in 3 ways: conduction convention & radiation.
Conduction: Transfer through direct contact from one object to another substance.
Convention: distribution of heat by movement of liquid or vapor.
Radiation: generation of heat energy within an object by wave action (Infrared boiling and microwave). Electro magnetic waves penetrate the food and agitate water molecules, and friction created from this agitation produces heat.
- Moist heat --- simmering or stewing, blanching, braising, poaching, boiling.
- Dry heat --- roasting, baking, frying, broiling.
Factors to be kept in mind while preparing the food
Thermostatic control: Standardized recipes should state the temperature and time for different items, including the end point temperature. Food thermometers help in maintaining desired temperature during cooking.
Carry over cooking: Means that the internal temperature of the food will continue to rise even after the meat has been removed from the oven – conduction of heat until the temperature is equalized throughout the product. This has to be kept in mind while cooking to prevent over cooking.
Batch cooking: Estimated quantity is divided into smaller quantities, placed in pans ready for final cooking or heating and then cooked as needed. Prevent leftovers.
Product yield: Yield is the amount of produce resulting at the completion of various phases of the procurement/production/service cycle and is expressed as a definite weight/volume or serving size.
loss in volume and weight in certain foods, whereas in some foods such as rice there is increase in volume. AP & EP. 1 Kg AP = ? EP
equipment and cooking procedure affect yield.
Portion control: Essential controls in food production. Achievement of uniform serving sizes important for cost control & customer satisfaction.
- Purchase of foods according to specifications.
- Development of standardized recipes & their use.
- Knowing size & yield of all pans, ladles, dishes helps to use appropriate equipment (tools) and consistent size can be maintained. Counting prices. Slicers, scales helps weight control.
- Standardization of recipe: Recipe standardization means tailoring of a recipe to suit a particular purpose in a specific food service operation.
This is the most important responsibility of the production supervisor.
Standardized recipes are essential for
- Quality control in a food service operation
- Cost control
Repeated testing to ensure that the product meets the standard of quality and quantity that has been established by the management – same results must be accepted by the management and clientele.
Food cost and selling price cannot be calculated correctly unless recipes are standardized to use only specific ingredients in known amounts yielding a definite quantity.
- Factor method - measures to weight (factor is determined)
- % age method - individual ingredient weight / total weight X 100 (handling loss)
- Direct reading - use of tables.
- Holding techniques:: Every food service establishment requires holding prepared food for varying periods of time before it is served. This is necessitated by the fact that all foods cannot be prepared quickly enough to be served on demand, and customers do not come at same time.
Holding temperatures for different foods:
|Meats and main dishes
||59 °C to 64°C
||64°C to 81°C
||4°C to 7°C
|-3°C to -9°C
The Basic principle underlying holding of food are
- To maintain them at temperatures which prevent microbial activity and ensure their safety for consumption. Foods must there for held above 63ºc or 5ºc.
- Holding techniques must maintain the quality characteristics of food such as quantitative, sensory and nutritional.
- Foods prepared too early and thus held too long, tend to lose their moisture and shrink because of the constant heat applied to them. This affects the colour, texture, flavor and size of the portion, Hence batch cooking can be adopted