Conservation of biodiversity

Lesson 14:Biodiversity and its conservation

In-situ conservation:

Conservation of biodiversity can be achieved by two ways i.e., in-situ and ex-situ.

In-situ conservation

It includes conservation of plants and animals in their native ecosystems or even in man-made ecosystems. This type of conservation applies only to wild fauna and flora and not to the domesticated animals and plants, because conservation is achieved by protection of populations in nature. It includes a system of protected areas (PA). eg: National parks, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, cultural landscapes, natural reserves, plants of sacred groves, cultivation of endemics etc.

There are 589 Protected Areas in India, of which 89 are national parks and 500 are wildlife sanctuaries. They include a variety of ecosystems and habitats. Some have been created in order to protect highly endangered species of wild plants and animals found nowhere else in the world.

Type of species protected
The great Himalayan national park Snow leopard
Kaziranga National Park Elephant, wild boar, swamp and hog deer’s
Manas sanctuary Golden langur, pygmy hog (smallest wild boar in the world)
Desert National Park of Thar Blackbuck, chinkara and nilgai
Ranthambore sanctuary Tigers
The Great and the Little Rann of Kutch sanctuaries Wild ass, flamingo, star tortoise and desert fox
Sanctuaries of Western Ghats Malabar giant squirrel and a flying
Squirrel and a variety of hill birds
Bharatpur sanctuaries Water birds like ducks, geese & herons
Nilgiri Hills forest sanctuaries Indian elephant
Chilika lake in Orissa Coastal ecosystems
Sunderbans Mangrove delta
Marine National park in Gujarat
Point Calimere in Tamil Nadu
Coral reefs and extensive mudflats
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Island ecosystems
Bhimashankar, Koyana, Chandoli
& Radhanagari in Maharashtra; Dandeli
& Nagarhole in Karnataka; Periya & Silent
Valley in Kerala
Rich flora
Gir sanctuary in Gujarat Asiatic lion.

Last modified: Friday, 30 December 2011, 6:44 AM