The main criteria of any living room are that it should be a relaxing, inviting space flexible for all that goes on. A balance of all three types of lighting – general, task and accent – gives the desired effect. General and accent lighting should be decided first; task light can be added afterwards.
Living and family room needs general illumination, preferably both direct and indirect, to bring walls and furniture, floors and ceilings into soft visibility. In addition scintillating light access to the animation. Each group of furniture especially in a large living room should have its own lighting subsystem, which gives the room a degree of visual organization. Direct light is a requisite where people read or sew, play games, or do homework. When entering the living room at night, general orientation lighting must be present. A single luminaries from the ceiling will provide the ambient lighting needed for this purpose. Accent lighting is particularly important as it may impress a visitor. It gives the finishing touch and needs to be planned as general lighting.
The lighting in room is enhanced by highlighting on paintings etc. Accent lighting also provides a certain amount of ambient light. Spotlights meet the need very well when fitted with incandescent / halogen reflector lamps.
Dining Room Lighting
The dining table is the spot where the family gathers to enjoy a meal together. Dining spaces deserve primary emphasis on what is most important- the table, the people around it, and the food that is going to be served. A ceiling fixture is sometimes the most practical solution for lighting a dining room. The use of low-level general illumination will create a serene atmosphere. Bright overhead lighting tends to have too harsh a character of pleasant dining –room-lighting.
A luminaries suspended above the table is a good solution. Chandeliers should shed a soft light and should hang fairly low over the table. A dimmer control allows lighting to be adjusted to varying conditions to family preference. The positioning of luminaries is very important. If too high, there is the risk of seeing the lamp. If too low, the luminaries will obstruct eye contact. The correct height is usually about 60 cm from the table top.
As most dining rooms have fixtures that hang over the table, the bottom of the fixture should be approximately 30 inches above the table if the room has an 8 feet ceiling. In rooms with higher ceiling, the fixture will need to be raised for better proportion.
Ceiling lamps are available that can be moved along an installed track, which allows a change in the position of dining table. Special lighting effects can be obtained from two indirect floor lamps or from two lighted urns on the buffet. A hidden spot light can be placed to throw extra light on the table. In lieu of a light hanging over the table, built-in-recessed lighting may be used to frame the table with incandescent light and bring out the sparkle of silver, china and glassware.
Bedroom merit light for the multiplicity of lighting requirements such as for reading, dressing, studying, eating viewing television, sewing etc.
In a large bedroom, general lighting can best be provided by a centrally located lamp with a luminaries that spreads the light around comfortably. White fluorescent lamps are best suited for general lighting. This ambient lighting should be switched off when reading.
Dressing table requires at least two small lamps, one on each side of the mirror and should be 36 inches apart. They should have translucent shades and should carry a 100 watt bulb. The important point in placing the mirror light is to be sure that the light falls on the person rather than on the mirror. An overhead fluorescent fixture is also satisfactory if light is properly diffused. Lamps for reading may be on stands or attached to the wall or ceiling if space is at a premium.
Children room lighting
The room should be brightly and uniformly lighted with general lighting. Night lamps are preferred. Study lamps should be carefully selected. A good study lamp should have a diffusing bowl and translucent shade to provide good shielding from direct glare.
Lighting for Study
Adequate illumination is needed for reading and writing. Practical illumination for a study can be provided in one or two ways. Either the entire space is lit to a very high level, with halogen up lighters / an array of powerful down lighters or the general lighting may be kept to a lower level similar to that for a living room and a number of task lights are used in addition.
Task lighting for writing should be positioned so as to avoid both glare as well as a shadow. The general lighting should also be arranged to cast light evenly over the entire working surface.
The lighting need of a studio, home office or other workroom depend on the work for which they are used. Halogen up lighters can be ideal, provided the ceiling is over .5 m or 8 ft high. Where the ceiling is too low for up lighting, ceiling –mounted halogen wall-washers could provide a similar degree of indirect light but with a vertical emphasis. Ceiling mounted fluorescent sources would also be effective and less expensive to run.
Bathroom lighting should have safety and utility requirements. It is desirable to have both general and task lighting in the bathrooms. Overall bathroom lighting is best provided by a ceiling fixture. Both incandescent and fluorescent lamps are satisfactory for lighting the bathroom mirror.
Lighting for the laundry room
The lighting in the laundry room should have at least one source of strong light to facilitate spot removal. Good overall illumination should be provided for ironing.
Lighting for recreation room
A recreation room needs a strong ceiling light for a ping-pong table. For cards and board games, a bridge lamp or pull – down fixture directly on the playing surface will be more pleasing than a general overhead lighting.