Manurial value


  • Proper collection and preservation of dung, urine, leftover fodder and other farm wastes is important, as they can be converted into valuable manure.
  • At present, more than 50% of the cattle dung produced in the country is utilised as fuel without realizing its manurial value. The urine which is a rich source of K, N and S is also not utilised properly due to improper methods of collection.
  • Cattle Manure or Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is the decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with leftover feed material and bedding material.
  • FYM is a bulky organic manure and it has long lasting effects on crop production and soil productivity, when properly used.
    • FYM contains all the essential elements required for crop growth.
    • These nutrients are present in small quantities (Average N.P.K content on dry weight basis is 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 % , respectively), but they are not easily lost from the soil because they are in organic form.
    • There are no ill-effects or pollution effects because of the use of FYM.
    • FYM is cheaper compared to the cost of commercial fertilisers. It can be locally prepared with indigenous technology
    • Application of FYM improves the physical properties of soil such as structure, pore space, water holding capacity, etc.
    • It also improves the soil chemical properties because organic matter (humus) has the highest cation exchange capacity (CEC).
    • FYM is the main source of food for all the useful micro-organisms living in the soil. Soil is biologically improved because of the application of FYM.
  • In view of the numerous advantages, animal wastes should be properly collected and converted into manure.
  • The floor of the cattle shed is prepared in such a way that the urine is either collected at one point because of the slope and hard and rough surface of the flooring, or is collected (absorbed) by using different types of bedding material like paddy husk, saw dust, groundnut shells, chopped straw, etc. The dung , urine (with or without bedding material) and left over feed (mainly roughages) are collected properly.
  • There are different methods of storage to prepare FYM.

Heap method

  • In this system, the manure is heaped on the ground in an open land exposed to sun and rain. There is heavy loss of nutrients in this system due to volatilization and/or leaching. The loss can be minimized by heaping underneath the shade of a tree and by covering with earth or polythene sheet.

Pit method

  • This is better than heap method. The bottom and sides of the pit are plastered with non-absorbants and as there is no direct exposure to sun or rain, the nutrient losses are minimum.

Covered Pit method

  • The opening of  pit is covered and so, it is the best method for FYM preparation.
  • Cattle and buffalo manure is available in plenty in our country which needs to be utilized properly. Pig manure is a rich source of N and P (3.7 and 3.3%), which should also be utilized more effectively.

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Last modified: Thursday, 10 May 2012, 7:17 AM