Lesson 2:Basic Materials Used in Bakery And Confectionery


Fats are used in almost all bakery products. Fats are available in many forms. All fats are shortening agents.

  • Butter:A fat processed from milk. It has a low melting point. The yellow color of butter depends on the feed of the cow and varies with seasonal changes. Butter contains 80-84% fats and 16-20% moisture. It is normally available in salted and unsalted form.
  • Ghee:Also called clarified butter; it is a fat processed from butter. It contains at least 99.6% fats. It is used to enhance flavor in traditional Indian dishes. However not commonly used in baking.
  • Oil:Oils are fat extracts from nuts, seeds and fruits such as soybean, sesame, sunflower and peanut. It is used in some muffin, bread and cake recipes and as a cooking medium for frying. If oil is used in place of a solid fat for some cake recipes, the texture will be heavier unless the sugar and egg are increased.
  • Vanaspati:A semi-solid form of hydrogenated vegetable oil with a minimum of 97% fat. It can substitute butter in baking 4 to 5 cup of vanaspati equals one cup of butter.
  • Margarine: A plastic hydrogenated fat used for cakes and pastry, commonly called bakery fats.
  • Shortening: A plastic hydrogenated fat used for cakes and pastry
  • Lard: Animal fat from pig

Fats are used in bakery for the following reasons:

  • Make the dough more pliable
  • Prevent stickiness and reduce the amount of dusting flour required or the make-up process
  • Prevent formation or toughness of gluten according to the method and the amount used
  • Add to the food value as enriching agents adding to calories.
  • Contribute and enhance flavour, moistness, mouth feel to baked products
  • Make the crust more tender
  • Improve keeping quality and produce a crumb that is soft and chewy.
Last modified: Thursday, 15 December 2011, 10:21 AM