Lesson 2:Basic Materials Used in Bakery And Confectionery
To produce a variety of quality breads, optional ingredients are required. They result in uniformity of products and efficiency of operations, assist in increasing the tolerances of doughs due to production variables, and help to satisfy the demand for variety in the flavor and taste of breads.
Mold inhibitors prevent bread from becoming molded.
Mineral yeast foodhelps to stabilize water by adding mineral salts, which are essential in dough fermentation and conditioning.
Mineral saltswhen added to water condition the soft water; antacid salts neutralize alkaline water which is harmful to yeast and gluten. Doughs made with mineral yeast foods are soft but not sticky and thus enable proper molding in machines free of air pockets.
Malt Products These are obtained from cereal grains usually barley. It is classified as malt flour, malt syrups and dried malt syrup. Each of, which is further, classified as non-diastatic and diastatic malt. They provide nutrientsto yeasts. Malt syrups are concentrated products made by evaporating the water extract of malted barley and other cereal grains. They contain diastases and proteases that convert starch to dextrins and maltose sugar while protease enzymes condition the gluten in dough.
Non-diastatic malt is used principally to impart flavour and colour to baked products. They also have some effects on texture and supply fermentable carbohydrates and other nutrients to yeast. These are high in sugars.
Diastatic malts have considerable enzyme activity. Malted grain from which these products are derived, is a source of enzymes which convert starch to reducing substances.
It is usually mixture of several inorganic salts together with starch or flouras an extender. Gluten oxidizing agents such as potassium bromate, potassium iodate or calcium peroxide. Calcium salts usually as phosphate or sulphate which corrects any lack of hardness in dough water and provide buffering action to partially offset alkaline condition of water. Ammonium salts supply nitrogen which can be used by yeast for protein building.
Dough Strengthening Enzymes strengthen doughs by breaking down the pentosans present in flour and improve the baked product
Oxidizing Agents Proper use of oxidizing agents results in larger volume, brighter crumb, better texture and improved appearance of finished loaf, e.g. potassium bromate, calcium oxide and potassium iodate.
Yeast Foods Use of ammonium salts, phosphates and sulphate in dough improvers and yeast foods improves the fermentation capacity of yeast in dough.