Lesson 5:Other Essential Ingredients Used In Baking


Sugar: Apart from flour, sugar is probably the most common ingredient used in confectionery. Processed from cane or beet are basically the same having sucrose. It is converted to simple sugars by the yeast enzyme invertase before the yeast can convert them to carbon dioxide gas and alcohol by the yeast enzyme zymase. Coarse granulated sugar also called the sanding sugar is the most popular kind of sugar for domestic use in India. Fine granulated sugar is ideal for sponge and cake bat­ters the coarser grades for macaroons. Very fine castor is produced by grinding crystals through rollers and sieving through silk cloths. Fine castor is particularly useful for shortbreads, short pastry and biscuits.

Boora refers to powdered dried sugar syrup. It works beautifully for baking as an Indian replacement for the international castor sugar. Icing sugar (finely ground sugar) is used for all kinds of decorative work. Pulverized sugar is useful for biscuit making.

Demerara Sugar also called brown sugaris a light yellow sugar with typical desirable flavour which is ideal in the making of rich fruit cakes.

Honey is used in honey cakes, sweets, nougats and in chocolate centers.

Commercial glucose or corn syrup is a standard ingredient for cakes, biscuits and icings as well as in the production of bread and sweet fermented foods.

Dextrosealso known as corn sugar is produced by converting corn starch into sugar. Lactose sugar is sugar found in milk, and is not fermentable by bakers yeast.

Functions of sugar:Sugar is not considered an essential ingredient in bread making because flour contains natural sugars and some starch is converted to sugar during the fermentation process. Important functions of sugar are

  • Sugar provides sweetness
  • Serves as a form of food for the yeast in fermentation
  • It softens gluten of the flour and gives good grain texture in the product
  • Promotes a good crust colour Improve the texture of the crumb
  • Helps in retention of moisture and prolongs freshness
  • Adds to the nutritional value of the bread
  • Promotes a good crust colour
  • Assists in the creaming and whipping process of mixing
  • Sugar tenderizes dough and batter products and helps baked products to brown more readily duo to Maillard reaction.
Last modified: Tuesday, 6 December 2011, 5:08 AM