Components Of The Municipal Health Services

Health Hygiene & Sanitation

Lesson 44 : Municipal Health Services

Components Of The Municipal Health Services

Why required?

The insanitary conditions of the localities in India is responsible for most of the deaths from preventable diseases like cholera dysentery, typhoid fever, other water borne diseases etc.

Scheme for Improvement

  1. Mass education
  2. Town planning and housing
  3. Safe water supply
  4. Conservancy arrangement – disposal of the refuse and night soil
  5. Sanitary measures for the disposal of the dead
  6. Measures against preventable disease
  7. Special measures
  1. Mass Education

    • People should be educated and told that
      • most of the diseases from which they suffer are preventable and thousands of lives could be saved.
      • Dangers of insanitary habits
      • Harmful effects of overcrowding
      • effects of ill ventilation, unhygienic surroundings pollution etc.
    • Elementary knowledge of hygiene should be taught in schools.
    • Educate also on the necessity of adopting sanitary measures for good health.

  2. Town planning and Housing

    • Teach people on the importance to build healthy houses and good roads and to keep them clean
    • Each house should have 1-2 bedrooms, 1 kitchen, verandah etc. There should be privy in a corner
    • Cow sheds, which are common in villages, should be placed at least 25 feet from house
    • Suitable arrangements be made for drainage of waste materials and refuse removal from house and cow sheds
    • House should be water proof, floor should be cemented
    • Rooms should have suitable floor space, cubic space. They should be sunny, well ventilated, with suitable windows and doors.

  3. Safe water supply

    • Cheap and dependable methods of supply of wholesome water be provided.
    • Such facilities can be
      • Deep tube wells, deep wells, protected tanks etc.
    • Wells and tanks must be constructed and maintained properly.
    • Periodical disinfection and cleansing of these water sources are of immense importance for a supply of good water.

  4. Efficient conservancy

    • Dry refuse
      • House sweepings and other refuse can be collected in empty drums and disposed off in the evening by burial or burning.
      • If buried, they should be covered with sufficient earth so that they don’t become fly breeding place, don’t emit foul smells or in rainy seasons don’t mix with water bodies and pollute them.
      • Burial with compost formation is quite satisfactory method.
    • Liquid waste water
      • Slop water, rain and other liquid should be drained by surface drains.
      • Drains should have proper gradient and impervious made with cement or glazed pipes
      • Drains should not open in tanks/ other water sources
      • Water should be disposed off by using for irrigation etc
      • Soakage pit for every house may be dug for the disposal of waste water.
    • Night soil
      • Septic tank latrine
      • RCA type of latrine with sewerage system
    • Urine disposal
      • Soakage pit can be used for this also
      • Soakage pit
      • A 6’x6’x6’ pit is dug. The pit is filled from bottom up with pebbles, bricks, charcoal sand etc up to about 6” below the earth surface.

  5. Sanitary disposal of the dead

    • Dead bodies including the carcass of dead animals should be effectively disposed off so as not to affect the health of the people adversely.
    • Dead animals should be buried
    • Burial and burning grounds should be specially set apart in every town/ village.

  6. Measures against preventable diseases

    • Common diseases include, malaria, cholera, TB, hook worm infestations etc.
    • There should be a curative services also by having some treatment centers – one for every 30000 persons in plane areas and one for every 20000 persons in hilly and tribal areas.
    • Treatment centers should be able to refer more serious cases to higher centers.
    • Measures against diseases should be launched and enforced on established lines.
    • There must be facilities for vaccination and other preventive measures.

  7. Special measures

  8. These include –

    • Protection of food by providing hygienic measures
    • Anti-mosquito and anti-flies measures
    • Protection of water supply, including protection of piped water supply from possibility of contamination
    • Prevention of cultivation within 200 yards of human habitation.
Last modified: Friday, 27 April 2012, 11:12 AM