Steps In The Investigation Of Epidemics

Health Hygiene & Sanitation

Lesson 44 : Municipal Health Services

Steps In The Investigation Of Epidemics

  1. As soon as the report is received, the area must be visited along with Medical Officer and report of the epidemic that was made should be verified.
  2. Verification should be done to confirm if the cases are exceeding the normally expected frequency. This is because, normal frequency of the cases is not an epidemic
  3. The area and the population exposed should be specified. This is called defining the population at risk.
  4. Spot map of the area should be prepared.
  5. With a help of a proforma, old and new cases are visited and recorded. The data thus recorded is called epidemiological case sheet.
  6. Analysis of the data is done for the following:
    • Time distribution of the cases.
    • Place distribution using the spot map
    • Person distribution for age, sex, occupation and other risk factors.
  7. A decision is taken for source of infection, cause, spread and environment. This is called putting forth hypothesis.
  8. The decision in step (7) is verified and tested to prove the cause
  9. By knowing source, cause, spread and environment, we can take measures to prevent further epidemic
  10. Screening, surveillance and survey are continued to do full detail investigations.
  11. Report is prepared and submitted to the concerned authorities for further steps.

Other Activities of Municipality

  • Other health related activities of the municipality include –
    • Abating the overcrowding of the interiors of the building.
    • Control of diseases among horses, dogs, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, birds etc.
    • Prohibition of making vault or grave in place of worships.
    • Closing places for disposal of dead
    • Special powers as and when conferred by the governments
Last modified: Friday, 27 April 2012, 11:12 AM