Pond ecosystem(Lentic)

Lesson 13: Types of ecosystems

Pond ecosystem(Lentic)

It is a fresh water ecosystem. It exhibits a self sufficient and self-regulating system. In this system producers are small organisms, hence their biomass is least, thus pyramid is inverted in shape.

  • Abiotic component: The chief substances are heat, light pH value of water and the basic inorganic and organic compounds such as water, CO2, O2, Ca, N, phosphates, aminoacids, humic acid etc.

  • Biotic component:
  1. Producers: These are autotrophic, green plants and some photosynthetic bacteria. The producers fix radiant energy and with the help of minerals derived from water and mud, they manufacture complex organic substances as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids etc. Producers are of the following types:
    1. Macrophytes: They are mainly large rooted plants which include partly or completely submerged, floating and emergent hydrophytes.
    2. Phytoplankton: These are minute, floating or suspended lower plants.

  2. Consumers
    1. Primary consumers: These are herbivores feeding directly on living plants. They are of two types:
      These are the animals associated with living plants and bottom forms which feed upon the plant remains lying at the bottom of pond. Eg: Fish, insect larvae, mites, mollusks, crustaceans etc. Besides these, some mammals as cows, buffaloes etc., and some birds, visit the pond casually and feed on marginal < rooted macrophytes.
      They feed chiefly on phytoplankton.
    2. Secondary consumers: These are chiefly insects and fish, which feed on zooplankton.
    3. Tertiary consumers: Some large fish like game fish and kingfishers feed on the smaller fish.

  3. Decomposers: They are also known as micro consumers, since they absorb only a fraction of the decomposed organic matter. Eg; bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes.
Last modified: Monday, 2 January 2012, 6:27 AM