Family welfare programmes

Lesson 30: Human population and environment

Family welfare programmes:

In response to our phenomenal population growth, India seriously took up an effective family planning program, which was renamed the “family welfare program”. Slogans such as “ hum do hamare do” indicated that each family should not have more than two children. however, it has taken several decades to become really effective.

At the global level by the year 2000, 600 million or 57% of women in the reproductive age group, were using some method of contraception. However the use of contraceptive measures in higher in developed countries – 68 % and lower in developing countries-55%. Female sterilization is the most popular method of contraception used in developing countries at present. This is followed by the use of oral contraceptive pills and intrauterine devices for women, and the use of condoms for men. India and china have been using permanent sterilization more effectively than many other countries in the developing world.

The best decision for the method to be used by a couple must be based on good advice from doctors or trained social workers who can suggest the fall range of methods available for them to choose from.

Informing the public about the various contraceptive measures that are available is of primary importance. This must be done actively by government agencies such as ”health and family welfare” as well as education and extension workers. It is of great importance for policy-makers and elected representatives of the people-ministers, M.Ps, MLAs at the central and state levels- to understand the great and urgent need to support the FWP. The media must keep people informed about the need to limit family size and the ill-effects of a growing population on the world’s resources.

Use of contraceptive measures in Developed countries is 68% and in developing countries is 55%. India and China had implemented permanent sterilization programmes. The other contraceptive measures used are oral contraceptive pills, intrauterine devices (IUD) for women, and use of condoms for men. China made abortions legal in the year 1953 and launched a campaign “Wan Xi Shao” which means later, longer and fewer i.e. getting married late, long gap between the child births and few children. Age of marriage for women and men in that country in rural and urban areas is 23 yrs and 25 years respectively. While in urban sector it is 25 yrs and 28 yrs for women and men respectively. In 1978-79 China had started one child campaign. Current fertility rate is 1.8 children per woman.

India had started National family planning policy in 1951 which is converted into population control programme after 1966. There is a reduction of birth rate from 4% during independence period to 2.9% /annum to the present. Death rate is reduced from 2.85% to 1%. India has 16% of world’s population, 2.3% world’s land resources and 1.7% world’s forest resources. 40% of the crop land is degraded while 70% of water is seriously polluted.

Last modified: Friday, 6 January 2012, 7:05 AM