Types of fuel used


  • Most commercial smoking operations have been using sawdust, which is easier to utilize and gives a greater volume of smoke.
  • Hard woods have been reported to be the best for smoking e.g.  sawdust of hickory, maple, oak , cherry and pecan
  • However, liquid smoke has been produced satisfactorily from both hard and softwood with excellent results.

Liquid smoke

  • Several liquid smoke preparations are available in developed countries.
  • The liquid smoke is prepared from hard wood.
  • The tarry droplets/polycyclic hydrocarbons are removed by filtration.
  • Final product is composed of primarily of the vapour phase containing mainly phenols, organic acids, alcohols and carbonyl compounds.
  • They do not contain polycyclic hydrocarbons especially benzapyrene a carcinogenic substance, which is removed during production of liquid smoke.
  • Liquid smoke has several advantages.
  • It has a little or no preservation effect although it contributes to the flavour.

Application of liquid smoke

  • It is generally spread on the product just before cooking.
  • Smoke solutions are diluted with water or frequently with vinegar or citric acid.

Composition of liquid smoke

  • 20 – 30 parts of liquid smoke
  • 5 parts citric acid or vinegar
  • 65 - 70 parts of water
  • Citric acid or vinegar is used to enhance the skin formation on skinless frankfurters.
  • Acid is commonly added to reduce the cost.
  • Liquid smoke makes it easier to keep the equipment clean.
  • Cooking after spraying with liquid smoke preparation is essential to give good smoke colour formation.
Last modified: Sunday, 10 April 2011, 2:06 AM