Yeast breads or leavened breads


Lesson 1:Introduction to Baking Science

Yeast breads or leavened breads

Bread is one of the most ancient foods consumed all over the world. In contrast to quick breads these breads required long periods of preparation

Characteristically yeast breads are made of strong wheat which contain more protein and more gluten. The bread quality is determined by the strength, quantity and quality of gluten. The gluten should be such that it is able to stretch adequately to hold CO2 between the matrix of gluten and starch in the dough. The basic ingredients in breads are flour, sugar, yeast, shortening, milk and salt. Additives such as flour improvers and preservatives are added to improve organoleptic and storage quality. Sugar helps as a source of carbohydrate for the yeast, salt controls their activity and adds to flavour. The shortening facilitates mixing and tenderizes the crumb. Milk powder improves the crumb texture. Addition of malt helps in release of glucose or maltose from the carbohydrates by the enzymes. The flour also contains the several natural enzymes such as amylase, diastases which liberate glucose. Leavened breads are prepared in two ways straight dough and sponge method. In the straight dough method all the ingredients are mixed and kept at controlled condition for fermentation. During this process, the dough is kneaded for several times to allow for escape of some carbon dioxide and for stretching and conditioning gluten. In the sponge method, part of the flour is kneaded to soft dough adding all the yeast, yeast foods and malt. This dough is fermented for 54 hours and rest of the flour is combined.

Buns and naan: Buns and naan resemble bread but soft wheat maida is used. Sugar up to 10 per cent and milk up to 5 per cent and yeast are used to give sweet and chewy quality. Naan is less plastic made with flour, some sugar, salt and fat and leavened with yeast or curds or both. The dough is fermented for an hour under a damp cloth. This is then baked in a special oven called tandoor.

Last modified: Thursday, 15 December 2011, 10:16 AM