Bakery concepts


Lesson 1:Introduction to Baking Science

Bakery concepts

Baked products have become an inevitable part of diets of modern era. Egyptians discovered the art of baking leavened bread about 50 centuries ago since then the art of baking has transformed itself as a big industry earning huge revenues. Baking is a cooking technique in which dry heat is applied to a food product in a closed environment, such as in an oven. Baking is one of the most versatile methods of cooking techniques because it can achieve a variety of sensory properties in the foods prepared almost with same raw materials. For example one can see varied textural characteristics in the bakery products i.e., spongy soft texture in breads, delicate pastries and cakes, light texture in puffs, flaky crispness and typical caramel taste in cookies and so on. This variation in sensory properties among baked products is achieved with almost same ingredients through baking but following exact techniques. All the ingredients put together in the right proportions and baked at appropriate temperature and conditions result in a perfect product of excellent sensory attributes. Slight variations in the quality of ingredients and techniques of preparations affect end products. Hence, it is important for a student to know the science of baking to achieve perfection.

Baking is the process of convection cooking in a hot chamber. During the process of baking, many physical and biochemical changes occur, the starch in the flour gelatinizes, sugar caramelizes, water evaporates and the product gains volume, texture, flavor and appearance. Temperature and time for baking is specific to each product. Ingredients used in baking include refined flour synonyms (flour, white flour or maida) eggs, fats, sweeteners, liquids or moistening agents, leavening agents and flavoring agents. These ingredients have specific function in the finished product. Substitution and alteration in proportions of these ingredients would alter not only product properties but also the nutrients in them.

Last modified: Thursday, 15 December 2011, 10:14 AM