Preparatory cultivation


  • Tillage:
    • It refers to the manipulation of the soil with tools and implements for loosening the surface crust and bringing about favourable conditions for the germination of seeds and crop growth.
  • Tilth:
    • It refers to a condition of a soil, suitable for germination of seeds, growth and maturity of a crop plant.

  • Ploughing:
    • Ploughing is disturbing the soil with tools and implements in order to create a favourable soil condition for the germination of seeds and growth of crop plants. Ploughing may be done under wet, dry and gardenland conditions.
  • Puddling:
    • Normally puddling is done only in wetland under submerged condition. Usually puddling is done only after ploughing.
  • Levelling:
    • Field should have even surface to get uniform germination of seeds and also for effective use of fertilizers and irrigation water. Certain specific tools like leveling board, buckscraper, etc., are used to achieve uniform leveling.
  • Beds and Channels:
    • This refers to an uniformly leveled plot area, of either square or rectangular shape and covered with ridges on all the four sides and provided with irrigation channels at convenient intervals. Mostly closer spaced crops like rice, ragi, etc., are planted in bed and channels.

Ridges and Furrows:

  • Formation of miniature hills and valleys in the field at the appropriate spacings for sowing / planting of wider spaced crops like Bajra Napier, Guinea grass, etc.

  • Draught:
    • The power applied to overcome the resistance offered by the soil to the passage of ploughs, implements etc. is called as draught.
  • Human Power:
    • Agricultural operations carried out using human labour (eg.) trimming and plastering of bunds, planting weeding, harvesting, etc.
  • Animal Power:
    • Agricultural operations carried out using bullock pairs (eg.) ploughing, carting, etc.

  • Mechanical Power:
    • Agricultural operations done by the use of tractors, power tillers, etc.
  • Electrical Power:
    • Use of electrical power for carrying out certain works like threshing the produce using Vicon theresher, irrigation by motor pumpset, etc.
Last modified: Friday, 2 September 2011, 11:06 AM