Knitted structures

Lesson 1: Textile Design and Different Textile Structures

Knitted structures

Knitting is the process of making cloth with a single yarn or set of yarns moving in only one direction. Instead of two sets of yarns crossing each other as in weaving the single knitting yarn is looped through itself to make a chain of stitches. These chains or rows are connected side by side to produce the knit cloth. The interlocking of these loops in knitting can be done by either vertical or horizontal movement. There are two basic knit structures weft and warp. When yarns run or interlock across the fabric, the knit is known as weft knit or filling knit. The weft knit is derived from age-old technique of hand knitting. Records show that the first knitting machine was invented in 1589. When yarns run lengthwise or up down the fabric, the knit is known as a warp knit. Both warp and filling knits are made by machine.

There are two basic types of knitting machine: the flat type and the circular type. The flat type knitting machine has needles arranged in a straight line and held on a flat needle bed. The cloth is made by forming stitches on these needles. The resulting fabric is flat. Machines with flat beds are used to make both warp and filling knits. The circular knitting machine has needles arranged in a circle on a rotating cylinder. It exclusively makes weft knit fabric. The resulting fabric is formed into a tube.

Knitting process is faster than weaving but requires more yarn for the production of same yardage of fabric.

Use of knits

  • Hosiery items like stockings, socks and under wears
  • Lingerie e.g. women’s under wear and night clothes
  • Winter garments e.g. sweaters, dress materials, gloves,
  • Sportswear,
  • Medical application
  • Industrial fabric etc.
Last modified: Tuesday, 24 January 2012, 7:40 AM