The other textile structures, based on construction techniques are described below:
- Braiding: Braiding is a fabric construction in which three or more yarns from a single source are interlaced diagonally and lengthwise (just as in braiding hair). There are two forms of braided fabrics flat and tubular. Both produce a fabric that is narrow and flexible. These fabrics are narrow and used primarily for trims and also made circular (tubular) for shoelaces. Braiding is used primarily for garment trims, cords and elastics.
- Macramé: Macramé technique is mainly used for the production of handicraft items and fashion accessories for e.g. wall panels, bags, towel hangers, belts, bands, neck- laces, bangles, jackets etc. This technique employs knotting of yarns. The word macramé seems to be Arabic in origin. It does not require specialized tools. The yarns or cords are fastened to a holding cord .The work is done by creating a variety of knots that joins the cords at different intervals.
- Nets: Net are created by looping and knotting a continuous strand of yarn into an open mesh (Fig.1.9). Most netted fabrics are made with either a square or diamond shaped mesh. The net can be decorated by embroidering designs on the open mesh. Such decorative nets are often classified as a type of lace. Machine made nets are manufactured on a bobbinet lace machine or on Raschel or compound needle tricot knitting machines. Net fabrics ranks from light weight net fabric to heavy fishing nets. Yarns are hold together by knots at each point where they intersect.
- Laces: Yarns are knotted, interlaced, interlooped or twisted to form open work fabrics usually with some figures (Fig.1.10). Lace constrictions are used for decorative edgings or entire fabric. Laces are generally divided into two categories according to their construction. One is called needlepoint lace, the other bobbin lace.
Needlepoint lace, is slightly older than bobbin lace, probably originated in Venice sometime prior to the 16th century. Bobbin lace seems to have originated in Flander or Belgium. Bobbin lace is also known as pillow lace and it is more closely related to netting and knotting, where as needle point lace stems more from embroidery.
- Felt: Wool fibres are carded, laid down in a thick layer sprayed with water and run through hot agitating plates, which cause the fibres to become entangled and matted together. Scaly structure of wool causes the fibres to cling closely together and crimp of wool assists in felting. The factors essential for producing natural felts from wool are heat, moisture and pressure. When wool is subjected to conditions of heat and moisture the scales open wider and interlock with scales of neighboring fibres, at the same time moisture causes the fibres to shrink together to produce a mass, when pressure is added, the mass is flattened , producing a web of tightly joined fibres or felt.
Felt has the advantage of being easily cut and because it has no yarn, it will not fray at the edges, Because of its densely packed fibres, felt provides a good deal of warmth and it is not easily penetrated by water. It has no grain. It can he moulded into shape, and so has wide use in making hats. It can absorb sound so used for a wide range of industrial purposes.
On the other hand, felt is a relatively weak fabric, may tear under pressure and is subject to pilling. Being a stiff fabric, it does not fall into graceful folds.