Lesson 1: Textile Design and Different Textile Structures
Weaving of fabric consists of interlacing of two sets of warp and weft yarns at right angles. There are many combinations in which warp and fillings yarns can he interlaced which determines the weave. By varying the interlacing, a wide variety of different fabric designs can be created. Fabrics can be woven from yarns on a simple handloom or on a highly complex, totally automated power loom. The lengthwise direction threads in a woven fabric are called the warp yarn. Crosswise threads are called filling or weft yarns. The closeness of the weave is expressed as the thread count i.e. number of warp and weft yarns in a square inch of fabric.
Types of basic weave structures The types of basic weave structures are plain weave, twill weave and satin weave.
Plain weave: Plain weave is the simplest of three basic weaves that can be made on a simple loom. It is also known as tabby and taffeta weave. It is formed by yarns at right angles passing alternately over and under each other (Fig.1.1 a). Each warp yarn interlaces with each filling yarn to form the maximum number of interlacing. Plain weave requires only two harness loom and is the least expensive weave to produce. It is described as 1/1 weave: one harness up and one harness down when the weaving shed is formed. Basket weave and rib weave are the variations of plain weave (Fig. 1.1 b, c)
Twill weave: Twill weave is one in which each warp or filling yarn floats across two or more filling or warp yarns with a progression of interlacing by one to the right or left to form a distinct diagonal line or wale (Fig.1.2 a, b). Twill fabrics are readily identified by the diagonal lines that weave creates on the surface of the fabric. A float is that portion of a yarn which crosses over two or more yarns from the opposite direction. Twill weave varies in the number of harnesses used. The simplest twill requires three harnesses. Twill weave is the second basic weave that can be made on the simple loom.
Satin weave: Satin weave fabrics are made by allowing yarns to float over a number of yarns from the opposite direction. Interlacings are made at intervals such as over four, under one, over seven, under one or over eleven under one. Float in satin fabrics may cross from four to twelve yarns before interlacing with another yarn. No diagonal line is formed on the surface of the fabric because the points of intersection are spaced in such a way that no regular progression is formed from one yarn to that lying next to it. When warp yarns form the floats the fabric is referred to as Satin (Fig.1.3 a). When filling yarns form the floats the fabric is called Sateen. (Fig.1.3 b)