1.4.2.Essential Features of an Institution
(a) Culturally approved patterns of behavior including prescribed roles and procedures. Institutions are structured and function as units identifiable from each other though not completely separable . Each institution is laden with values, prescribed roles and codes of conduct, some 'written in laws, but most unwritten and sub consciously exerting social pressure on members of society .
(b) Patterns of behavi or grouped about central human needs and organised to direct behaviour toward the meeting of these needs . Institutions are therefore purposive having the satisfact ion of social needs as a goal or obj ective ,
( c ) Overall patterns or systems of behavior which have persisted. Long enough to be considered relatively permanent. Change is implied but exists more within the overall structure of the in stitution, than in the institution itself, e.g. a system of educaion may change but the institution of educa tion is itself more relatively permanent . Socially prescribed roles are an integral part of institutions .
The following points are stated to emphasise their importance :
1 . Institutions if involve formulation of distinctive kinds of rol es and their fulfillment. Each institution is a structure of related roles, which embodies common values in society.
2. These roles are interrelated and form a network of obligations and rights.
3. Throug the functioning of the patterns of interrelated roles, the institution performs some important functions for socie y - be it physical sustenance of members through economic in stitutions, or maintenance of peace, law, order and protection through the institution of government .
4. Each member of society participates and plays a role in the network of roles that constitute as institution in society. The basic institutions of society - religion, educational, government, economic and family are such that no member of society can exist without participation in some way in t hem.
5. Society considers this system of roles and relationships so important as to protect and perpetuate it through legal enactment, religious sanctions or other forms of formal and / or informal pressures and sanctions.